Sıfır Rakamını Kim Buldu? Sıfırın Tarihi

Blog on 4 Nov , 2014
matematik:
baskentegıtım

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On 4 Kasım 2014
Last modified:4 Kasım 2014

Summary:

Sıfır rakamının nasıl bulunduğuna dair geniş bilgiler içeren, sıfırın tarihçesini ortaya koyan bir yazı.

Matematikte çok önemli bir yer ifade eden 0 (sıfır) sayısının nasıl bulunduğunu ve kullanılmaya başlandığını hiç merak ettiniz mi? Nötr ya da başlangıç olarak kullanılan “sıfır rakamını kim buldu” konusunu bu yazımızda inceleyeceğiz.

Sıfır sözcüğü, Arapça’dan, “sıfr” sözcüğünden gelmektedir. Dünyada şu anda kullandığımız haliyle kullanılmadan evvel, böyle bir sayının ihtiyacını duyarak bir sembol şeklinde ilk kullananlar M.Ö. 3000 yıllarında Mısırlılardır. Matematik tarımsal ve yaşamsal alanda bin yıllardır ihtiyaç duyulan bir bilimdir ve bu bilim yıllar, yüz yıllar geçtikçe gelişmeye devam etmiş, bu gelişmeler sonucunda hayatımızı kolaylaştırmıştır. İşte tam da bu nedenle Mısırlılar da böyle bir simgeye ihtiyaç duymuşlardır.

Toplamada etkisiz, çarpmada yutan eleman olan, sayıların arasına veya sonuna gelerek 2 ve daha fazla basamaklı sayılar oluşturmamızı sağlayan bu sayıya M.Ö. 700-500 yılları arasında Babilliler de ihtiyaç duymuş ve iki paralel çizgiden oluşan bir sembol ile kullanmıştır.

Matematik biliminde büyük bir devrim yapan bu sayı, “0” harfine benzeyen bir harf şeklinde M.S. 2. yüz yılda ise Eski Yunan’da kullanılmıştır. Matematikçi ve gökbilimci Batlamyos, astronomi yazılarında sıfıra benzeyen bu harfi kullanmıştır. Eski Yunanlılar yokluk anlamına gelen bir kavramın farkında olsalar da, bunu bir matematiksel rakam olarak kullanmadılar.

Sıfır Rakamını Kim Buldu?

Sıfır sayısının ilk kullanımı hakkında yanlış bilinen bir bilgi vardır. Bu sayıyı matematiksel bir rakam kabul ederek ilk defa M.S. 632 yılında Hindistan’da, Brahmagupta kullanmıştır. Matematikçi ve gökbilimci Brahmagupta, 0’ı sayı olarak kullanmanın haricinde, 0 ile matematiksel işlemler hakkında da çalışmalar yapmıştır. Ama bu işlemlerin sağlama ve kanıtlamalarına ulaşamaması nedeniyle, bu matematiksel bilgiye nasıl ulaştığı bilinmemektedir. Brahmagupta özellikle rakamların sıfıra bölünme işlemini bir türlü gerçekleştirememiştir. (Günümüzde bir sayının sıfıra bölünmesinde sonuç tanımsızdır.) O yıllarda yaptığı bu üstün çalışma ile kendisini büyük bir matematikçi olarak adlandırmak gereklidir.

Brahmagupta’nın bu önemli buluşuna rağmen sıfır (0) sayısı dünyanın geri kalanı tarafından matematiksel bir rakam olarak kullanılmamıştır. Şu andaki haliyle sıfır sayısının kullanılmasını sağlayan kişi M.S. 830 yıllarında Fars kökenli matematik ve gökbilimci Hârizmî’dir. Hârizmî, Hindistan’da bulunduğu dönemde Brahmagupta’nın çalışmalarından etkilenmiş ve bu sayıyı geliştirerek kullanmıştır. Sıfır ve diğer dokuz rakam ile aritmetik işlemlerin nasıl yapılacağını adım adım gösteren insandır. Ayrıca Harezmî “cebirin babası” olarak kabul edilen büyük bir matematikçidir.

O güne kadar 0 sayısı batıda, Avrupa’da matematiksel olarak hiç kullanılmamıştır. Roma rakamlarında yer almayan tek rakam 0 (sıfır)’dır. Avrupa’da ilk defa, Hint-Arap sayıları ile ilgilenen Leonardo Fibonacci tarafından kullanılmıştır. M.S 1200’lü yıllara denk gelen bu olayın ardından Avrupa’da sıfır hızla kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Hem Roma rakamlarının, hem Arap sayılarının bir arada kullanılmaya başlaması Avrupa’da bir karmaşayı da ortaya çıkarmış, hatta 1299 yılında Floransa’da Arap rakamları ve özellikle sıfırın kullanılması yasaklanmıştır. Bunun nedeni çok kullanılmayan bu rakamın ticarette zorluklar çıkarması olarak belirtilmiştir. Ama hesap ve kullanım olarak büyük bir kolaylık sağlayan bu rakam tüccarlar tarafından ısrarla kullanılmaya devam etmiştir. Bu rakamın Avrupa ticaretinde kullanılmaya başlaması ile her geçen yıl yaygınlaşmış ve şu anda sorgulamadığımız rakamlarımızdan biri oluvermiştir.

Özetle 0 (sıfır)’ın kullanımının Kronolojik sıralaması;
M.Ö. 3000: Mısırlılar tarafından bir sembol olarak kullanılmıştır.
M.Ö. 700-500: Babilliler tarafından iki paralel çizgiden oluşan bir sembol olarak kullanılmıştır.
M.S. 2. yy: Eski Yunan’da astronomi yazılarında kullanılmış, matematiksel bir anlam verilmemiştir.
M.S. 632: Brahmagupta tarafından ilk defa matematiksel olarak kullanılmıştır.
M.S. 830: Matematiksel olarak Hârizmî tarafından aritmetik işlemler ile kullanılmış ve açıklamaları yapılmıştır.
M.S. 1200: Avrupa’da Arap’lardan alınarak yasaklara rağmen özellikle tüccarlar tarafından kullanılmış ve dünyaya yayılmıştır.

Bu yazımızda sıfır rakamını kim buldu sorusuna cevap aradık, bir sonraki makalemizde görüşmek üzere.

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